By I. Karmok. University of Rochester.

For exam- ple generic norvasc 5 mg free shipping pulse pressure journal, software could locate particular words or phrases; make lists of words and put them into alphabetical order; insert key words or comments; count occurrences of words or phrases or attach numeric codes generic norvasc 2.5 mg line blood pressure chart mayo. Some software will retrieve text, some will analyse text and some will help to build theory. Although a computer can undertake these mechanical processes, it cannot think about, judge or inter- pret qualitative data (see Table 10). QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS If you have decided that a large survey is the most appro- priate method to use for your research, by now you should have thought about how you’re going to analyse your data. You will have checked that your questionnaire is properly constructed and worded, you will have made sure that there are no variations in the way the forms are administered and you will have checked over and over again that there is no missing or ambiguous information. If you have a well-designed and well-executed survey, you will minimise problems during the analysis. Computing software If you have computing software available for you to use you should find this the easiest and quickest way to ana- lyse your data. The most common package used by social scientists at this present time is SPSS for windows, which 122 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS TABLE 10: USING COMPUTERS FOR QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Using computers helps to In focus groups the group moves alleviate time-consuming and through a different sequence of monotonous tasks of cutting, events which is important in the pasting and retrieval of field analysis but which cannot be notes and/or interview recognised by a computer. Computers are a useful aid to Programs cannot understand those who have to work to tight the meaning of text. Programs can cope with both Software can only support the multiple codes and over-lapping intellectual processes of the codes which would be very researcher – they cannot be a difficult for the researcher to substitute for these processes. Some software can conduct Participants can change their multiple searches in which more opinions and contradict than one code is searched much themselves during an interview. Programs can combine codes in The software might be beyond complex searches. Programs can pick out instances User-error can lead to of pre-defined categories which undetected mistakes or have been missed by the misleading results. Computers can be used to help Using computers can lead to an the researcher overcome over-emphasis on mechanical ‘analysis block’. HOW TO ANALYSE YOUR DATA/ 123 has become increasingly user-friendly over the last few years. However, data input can be a long and laborious process, especially for those who are slow on the key- board, and, if any data is entered incorrectly, it will influ- ence your results. Large scale surveys conducted by research companies tend to use questionnaires which can be scanned, saving much time and money, but this op- tion might not be open to you. If you are a student, how- ever, spend some time getting to know what equipment is available for your use as you could save yourself a lot of time and energy by adopting this approach. Also, many software packages at the push of a key produce profes- sional graphs, tables and pie charts which can be used in your final report, again saving a lot of time and effort. Most colleges and universities provide some sort of statis- tics course and data analysis course. Or the computing de- partment will provide information leaflets and training sessions on data analysis software. If you have chosen this route, try to get onto one of these courses, especially those which have a ‘hands-on’ approach as you might be able to analyse your data as part of your course work. This will enable you to acquire new skills and complete your re- search at the same time. Statisticl techniques For those who do not have access to data analysis soft- ware, a basic knowledge of statistical techniques is needed to analyse your data. If your goal is to describe what you have found, all you need to do is count your responses and reproduce them. This type of frequency count is usually the first step in any analysis of a large scale survey, and forms the base for many other statistical techniques that you might decide to conduct on your data (see Example 12). For example, someone might be unwilling to let a researcher know their age, or someone else could have accidentally missed out a question. If there are any missing answers, a separate ‘no answer’ category needs to be included in any frequency count table. In the final re- port, some researchers overcome this problem by convert- ing frequency counts to percentages which are calculated after excluding missing data. However, percentages can be misleading if the total number of respondents is fewer than 40. HOW TO ANALYSE YOUR DATA/ 125 EXAMPLE 12: TOM Tom works part-time for a charity which provides infor- mation and services for blind and partially sighted peo- ple in the town.

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One of the sal bacteria into the bloodstream is a normal occurrence for toxin fragments purchase 5 mg norvasc amex arrhythmia ventricular tachycardia, the delta endotoxin purchase 2.5 mg norvasc blood pressure medication that does not cause joint pain, confers the lethal effect most people. If the The delta endotoxin binds to the epithelial cells lining immune system is not functioning efficiently then the invad- the gut wall of the insect. By creating holes in the cells, the ing bacteria may be able to multiply and establish an infection. Another consequence of are another illness (such as acquired immunodeficiency syn- the destruction is a modification of the pH to a more neutral drome and certain types of cancer), certain medical treatments level that is hospitable for the germination of the endospores. The resuscitation and growth of Bacillus thuringiensis within Examples of bacteria that are most commonly associ- the insect gut kills the larva. In the recent three or four The generalized location of bacteremia produces gener- decades, with the advent of techniques of molecular alized symptoms. These symptoms can include a fever, chills, rearrangement, the specificity of the bacterium for target pain in the abdomen, nausea with vomiting, and a general feel- insect pests has been refined. Not all these symptoms are present at the some one percent of the worldwide use of fungicides, herbi- same time. Septic shock produces more drastic See also Bacteriocidal, bacteriostatic symptoms, including elevated rates of breathing and heartbeat, loss of consciousness and failure of organs throughout the body. The onset of septic shock can be rapid, so prompt med- BBacteremicACTEREMIC ical attention is critical. The discovery of bacteria in the blood should be taken Bacteremic is a term that refers to the ability of a bacterium to as grounds to suspect bacteremia, because bacteria do not typ- multiply and cause an infection in the bloodstream. Antibiotic therapy is usually initiated sion of the bloodstream by the particular type of bacteria is immediately, even if other options, such as the transient entry also referred to as bacteremia. In addition, If the invading bacteria also release toxins into the antibiotic therapy is prudent because many bacteremic infec- bloodstream, the malady can also be called blood poisoning or tions arise because of an ongoing infection elsewhere in the septicemia. Along with the prompt start of treatment, the antibiotic associated with septicemia. Use of an ineffective antibi- 44 WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY Bacteria and bacterial infection otic can provide the bacteria with enough time to undergo lacking fimbrae, showing that these structures can indeed pro- explosive increases in number, whereas the use of an antibiotic mote the capacity of bacteria to cause infection. At the As with many other infections, bacteremic infections point of entry, usually at small breaks or lesions in the skin or can be prevented by observance of proper hygienic procedures mucosal surfaces, growth is often established in the submu- including hand washing, cleaning of wounds, and cleaning cosa. Growth can also be established on intact mucosal sur- sites of injections to temporarily free the surface of living bac- faces, especially if the normal flora is altered or eliminated. The rate of bacteremic infections due to surgery is much Pathogen growth may also be established at sites distant from less now than in the past, due to the advent of sterile surgical the original point of entry. Access to distant, usually interior, procedures, but is still a serious concern. If a pathogen gains access to tissues by adhesion and See also Bacteria and bacterial infection; Infection and invasion, it must then multiply, a process called colonization. The initial inoculum is rarely sufficient to cause BACTERIA AND BACTERIAL INFECTION damage. A pathogen must grow within host tissues in order to Bacteria and bacterial infection produce disease. If a pathogen is to grow, it must find appro- Infectious diseases depend on the interplay between the abil- priate nutrients and environmental conditions in the host. If the ability of factors that affect pathogen growth, but the availability of a microorganism to invade, proliferate, and cause damage in microbial nutrients in host tissues is most important. Not all the body exceeds the body’s protective capacities, a disease nutrients may be plentiful in different regions. Infection refers to the growth of microorganisms ents such as sugars, amino acids and organic acids may often in the body of a host. Infection is not synonymous with disease be in short supply and organisms able to utilize complex nutri- because infection does not always lead to injury, even if the ent sources such as glycogen may be favored. Trace elements pathogen is potentially virulent (able to cause disease). In a may also be in short supply and can influence the establish- disease state, the host is harmed in some way, whereas infec- ment of a pathogen.

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